Debian has now released Debian Buster into stable status, Buster is the successor to Debian 9 Stretch. These are my observations of notable changes to the new release.
- Xorg has been replaced by Wayland
- AppArmor is being installed and enabled by default
- The install is UEFI compliant
- Cups and cups-filters packages are installed by default
- Many updated applications (Isn’t this really expected though)
I have yet to find any official hardware requirements, it is pretty safe to say it will be consistent with Debian Stretch.
- 512 MB RAM
- 10 GB HDD
- 1GHz Pentium 4 processor
- Installation Media (USB / DVD)
Burn your image to either a CD, DVD or Flash Drive and perform whatever voodoo magic required to get your image booted. Together we will walk through all steps of the installation with screenshots.
Step 1) Booting
We will be going through the graphical install. I have to say it is refreshing to see a new graphic in the background. After you do so many of these installations something new is great, even if it is not overly flashy. This article will only cover a graphical installation, so pick that.
We will be doing an English install with English keyboard settings, pick appropriately for your environment.
2) Host Name and Domain Settings
Your host name will be the identifier for your system. The is reflected in /etc/hostname and also noted in your DNS if you are using DHCP.
Your domain name will define your name resolution search domain, fairly important if you are actually in a Windows domain.
3) Users and Passwords
A small gripe here. With operating system security issues being so prevalent now, I think it is about time that Debian starts enforcing strong passwords during setup and password changes as a default. As you see here I was able to use a 1 letter password, this should really never be allowed. I hope the Debian team fixes that on the installation process soon. I am getting off my soap box now.
Type in your chosen root password, make it long and complex!
User full name, I never put a real name here.
This is actually your login name, not your login name description
Make it long and complex!
This is probably where most people new to Linux take a bit of pause not understanding their options and the implications of their options. Partitioning can be complex and until your are a seasoned Linux professional it is best to not deviate from the defaults. There are real world consequences to not sizing a particular partition to your real world needs. We will go through each of these and I will give a quick description on why you may want to change these options. If you do want to play around with the different options you can always start the installation process again and choose different partitioning options.
The first option is just to use the entire available hard drive and that is your default. The second and third option are LVM’s. And LVM stands for Logical Volume Manager. And LVM will let you take a disk, or multiple disk and do things like resize them on the fly. You can take multiple disk and aggregate them together and even chop those up into different logical partitions. The third options is just an LVM that is encrypted. I will not go into any depth on an LVM, I do not mess with them on a regular basis but I think you need to know they exist and a basic understand on why you would use one. The last option is just going complete manual and gives you granular control over your partitioning.
Choose your disk
Partitioning detail is an important consideration. Basically this it almost like having a quota. The first option is taking all of your hard drive space and putting it into one partition. For beginners, go this route for sure. So why would you chose the other two? Well for many reasons. Say for instance you pick the second option and have your home partition fill to capacity, it will not effect the actual operation of your computer. If you put all of your space into one partition and fill it your drive, your system will become extremely unstable and go into an almost completely non working state. Another reason is chopping up your partitions make it fairly easy to upgrade those partitions by just mounting another disk and copying your data over.
The major consideration is knowing how much space to allocate to each one. If you chose the last option and know your computer will be a web server it would be beneficial to make sure you lean that space more toward the /var folder than the /home folder. Like I said we are keeping it simple, so go with the first option.
Review the summary and accept the changes if they look okay.
The installation will start installing the base system, this does not take long.
5) Package Sources
If you have downloaded the CD or DVD set, insert each Debian disk.
If you are wanting to use a network mirror pick yes and select the mirror. I highly recommend this, even if you are using the CD or DVD set. One exception is if you know your network card and wireless will not be detected, then it really is a moot point.
If you use a network proxy key it in.
After your proxy selection you should start seeing a progress meter for a short period.
Your choice, but I like my privacy and select no 🙂
We can select our software packages now. If you are going headless save your space and turn off the first check mark desktop environment. I always select SSH server so I can putty back into my box.
This portion will take a while depending on your medium. Over a slow connection it can take a while, also your selections make a huge impact.
6) Grub boot loader
The majority of the time you will be using GRUB as your boot loader, so select yes. Also the second screen you will change the selection to the second option, unless you have some special circumstance.
7) Finished Installation!
Everything is now finished, you will now be taken to your login screen and can login with the password you selected. If you are not taken to a login screen and receive an error the majority of the time you are having a video driver issue.